Prof. K. M. Joshi

Head, T&P Cell
Asst. Professor (MED),
S.S.A.S. Inst. of Tech.,

Heritage of India

  in Science and Technology


1.One Group of people says that we had all knowledge, every thing is given in Vedas and in other literature, we were/are greatest civilization in world. 

2.And other view says we have done  nothing, all modern science and technologies, inventions are from Europe, Western countries. 

 Actually both views are wrong.
Here few examles are given which shows great heritage of India


Gravity of the Earth


            According to modern science Gravity of Earth has been discovered by Sir, Isaac Newton (1642-1727 AD)  

            A  'Slokah' from Siddhanta-Siromanih, Bhuvanakosah 6, Bhaskarahcharya.  (1150 AD)  

" Akrstisaktisca mahi taya yat 
khastham guru svabhimukham svasaktya ! 
Akrsyate tatpatativa bhati
same samantat kva patatviyam khe !! "

 Meaning : 

           "The attracting (gravitational) force (is) the earth. That (earth) with that gravitational force of hers attracts towards herself the large objects in the sky. Which ever is attracted fall down. In space,  bodies with matching forces not will fall".


Born in the obscure village of Vijjadit (Jalgaon) in Maharastra, Bhaskaracharya's work in Algebra, Arithmetic and Geometry catapulted him to fame and immortality.
His renowned mathematical works called "Lilavati" and "Bijaganita" are considered to be unparalled and a memorial to his profound intelligence.

          In his treatise "Siddhant Shiromani" he writes on planetary positions, eclipses, cosmography, mathematical techniques and astronomical equipment.
          In the "Surya Siddhant" he makes a note on the force of gravity: "Objects fall on earth due to a force of attraction by the earth. Therefore, the earth, planets, constellations, moon, and sun are held in orbit due to this attraction”


 The Speed of light

           A  'Slokah' from Rg-veda-samhita, Mandalam 1,  Suktam 50, Mantrah 4 (6000 BCE) Sayanacarya's commentary (14th century AD):

 "Tatha ca smaryate yojananam sahasram dve dve sate dve ca yojane !
Ekena nimisardhena kramamana namostu te !! "

Meaning : 

           The speed of light was first determined in 1676 AD by a Danish astronomer Olaus Roemer who looked at the difference in the times that light from Io, one of the moons of Jupiter, takes to reach earth based on whether it is on the near side of Jupiter or the far side.

          Until then light was taken to travel with infinite velocity. Even Newton assumed so. In 1887 AD., Michealson and Morley established the velocity of light 1,86,300 miles / sec.
          It is remembered (that) Salutations to Thee (sun), giving light the traveller of 2,202 yojanas in half a nimisha.Sayana's computation of Speed of Light Distance travelled = 2202 Yojanas in ½ of Nimisha.

1 Yojana    = 9 miles, 110 Yards     = 9.0625 miles

1 nimisha= 1/8.75 second  =  0.114286   seconds 

  Speed of light         =  185,016.169 miles / seconds.

    Modern Value         =   186,282.397 miles / seconds.


Rotation of Earth

           We have been taught the Galileo has found that earth rotates on its own axis in 16th century. 

          A  'Slokah' from Aryabhatiyam, Golapadah, Chapter 4, Slokah 9, Aryabhatah (b.499 AD)

"Anulomagatirnausthah pasyatyacalam vilomagam yadvat !
Acalani bhani tadvat samapascimagani lankavam !! " 

Meaning : 

           “Just as a person in a boat moving forward sees the stationary objects (on the bank) as moving backwards, the stationary stars are seen in Lanka (at the equator) as moving towards the west”. 

         Born in 476 CE in Kusumpur (Bihar), Aryabhatt's intellectual brilliance remapped the boundaries of mathematics and astronomy.

         In 499 CE, at the age of 23, he wrote a text on astronomy and an unparallel treatise on mathematics called "Aryabhatiyam." He formulated the process of calculating the motion of planets and the time of eclipses.

         Aryabhatt was the first to proclaim that the earth is round, it rotates on its axis, orbits the sun and is suspended in space - 1000 years before Copernicus published his heliocentric theory.  

 That's Accuracy

              The period of one sidereal rotation of the earth according to Aryabhata is 23 hours, 56 minutes 4.1 seconds. The corresponding modern value is 23 hours, 56 minutes 4.091 seconds.

             Arryabhatta also has given the value of earth diameter is    which is the sharpest amongst all modern scientists..

Source :Aryabhatiyam, Golapadah, Chapter 4,Arrabhatta

Distance of Planets from Sun

Distance of earth from the sun is 1.5 × 108 km that is called Astronomical Unit (AU)



Modern science


0.37 AU

0.387 AU


0.725 AU

0.723 AU


1.438 AU

1.432 AU


4.16 AU

4.20 AU


9.41 AU

9.54 AU  

 Source:  Arrabhatiya, Golapadah



Time Calender

2 Parmanu= 1 Anu (Atom)            3 anu= 1Trash renu
3 Trash renu= 1 Truti                      100 Truti= 1 Vedh
3 vedh = 1 lav                                  3 lav= 1 nimesh
3 nimesh = Kshana(Moment)        4 Kshana = 1 kasth
30 Kasth = 1 Kala                           30 kala = 1 Muhrat
30 Muharat= 1 Day & Night           7 Days = 1 Saptah                                                                               (Week)
2 Saptah= 1 Paksh                         2 Paksh= 1 Mas                                                                                   (Month)
 2 mas = 1 Rutu(Season)               3 Rutu= 1 Ayan
 2 Ayan= 1 Varsh(Year)

All this units are not sufficient to describe time in  universe.
Yug is used as reference unit.

  1 Kalyug = 432000 years             2 kalyug = dwarparyug
  3 kalyu = Treta yug                      4 kalyug = Satyug

  All four yugs togather known as 1 chaturyugi

  71 chaturyugi = 1 Manvantar ………at last

 1 kalp = 4320000000 years

            According to Vedas Lord Brahma 's 1 day is equal to 1 kalp and same is the 1 night. The life span of Lord Brahma is such 1 year. (means according to morden physics travelling speed of Bramaji is still less than the speed of light other wise their life span would be infinite.) The time of Load Vishnu is past as 1 nimesh When such a one Brahmaji dies. The time of Shiva just starts when there is change in one Lord Vishnu !!!


                             Aviation Technology

Acharya Bharadwaj had a hermitage in the holy city of Prayag and was an ordent apostle of Ayurveda and mechanical sciences.He authored the "Yantra Sarvasva" which includes astonishing and outstanding discoveries in aviation science, space science and flying machines.

He has described three categories of flying machines:

1.) One that flies on earth from one place to another.
2.) One that travels from
one planet to another.
3.) And One that travels from one universe to another.

His designs and descriptions have impressed and amazed aviation engineers of today. In those days the mercury vapour was used as the fule for flying machines like aeroplane. 


Atomic Theory 

             Acharya Kanad was a genius in philosophy. He is believed to have been born in Prabhas Kshetra near Dwarika in Gujarat. He was the pioneer expounder of Realism, Law Of Causation And The Atomic Theory. He has classified all the objects of creation into nine elements, namely: earth, water, light, wind, ether, time, space, mind and soul.

                    He said, "Every object of creation is made of atoms which in turn connect with each other to form molecules." His statement ushered in the Atomic Theory for the first time ever in the world, nearly 2500 years before John Dalton.

               Kanad has also described the dimension and motion of atoms and their chemical reactions with each other.